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However, an important number of adults with a history of trauma remain psychologically healthy.
These people have been described as being resilient. However, the psychological processes involved in resilience are still debated.
While some authors define resilience as a process that develops after the trauma has emerged, others view it as a trait. In the present research, we examined the role of trait psychological resilience or ego-resiliency as a mediator in the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological symptoms.
A total of outpatients from a University psychology clinic completed a set of five questionnaires measuring their level of child trauma, psychological resilience, anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and self-harm behavior.
Mediational analyses showed that psychological resilience was a complete mediator in the relationship between child trauma and these four types of symptoms.
Alternative models and implications for the conceptualization of resilience as a trait will be discussed. As the effect sizes were small, we hypothesized that the openness and intellect effects might relate only to certain SZTP symptoms.
We predict that high openness will show the strongest association with positive traits i. While it is typically assumed that such a need is basically invariant in people, we propose that some individual differences may exist.
Specifically, two forms of belongingness needs are proposed: a growth-oriented need intrinsic need oriented toward interpersonal actualisation and a deficit-oriented need extrinsic need oriented toward interpersonal deficit reduction or repair.
The purposes of the present research were 1 to explore the validity of the Belongingness Orientation Scale with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as with a test-retest stability, 2 to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of the two belongingness-orientations, 3 to uncover the different interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes e.
The results of multiple studies 6 supported the validity of the Belongingness Orientation Scale and its importance in predicting interpersonal and intrapersonal psychological adjustment.
Correction for this underestimation is possible if some estimate of measurement error is available, however traditional correction methods either fail to provide supporting inferential procedures or fail to extend in application beyond very simple experimental designs.
A new method, dubbed disattenuation by simulation DS , will be presented as a general purpose estimation and inferential tool that fills both gaps in current correction methodology.
We hypothesized that in addition to these two factors, pay entitlement is also influenced by psychological entitlement, which is an internal sense that one is owed more than others.
Hypothetical job descriptions were given to undergraduate participants, who received either social comparison information or no information regarding pay expectations for certain jobs.
Participants were asked to estimate the pay to which they felt entitled for these jobs. After controlling for past pay i. Psychological entitlement was strongly correlated with salary expectations for the no-information group.
Thus, it is likely that in the absence of social comparison information psychological entitlement is a key driver of the gender differences in pay entitlement.
During the first wave prejudice was considered an abnormality or syndrome e. In the second wave researchers shifted emphasis from dysfunctional to normal processing, stressing cognitive biases and routine categorization see Duckitt, The third and current wave promotes a multidimensional approach toward intrapersonal and intergroup processes.
Here we consider an integration of the theoretical approaches from the first and second waves. Intriguingly, recent research e.
The current study examines how these three maladjustment variables relate to ideological individual difference variables e.
We consider how maladaptive personality traits operate in conjunction with normalrange ideological personality variables in forming the foundation of a prejudiced personality.
Relatively speaking, language remained virtually uncensored only Violence was highly prevalent and relatively uncensored, with Sexual themes were present in many comics Illicit drug use was highly unrepresented, with Preliminary analyses also suggest that comics drawn by male artists tend to use harsher language, be more violent, and have more sexual content than comics drawn by female artists.
The potential motivations for self-censorship as well as the sex differences in webcomic content are discussed.
HP occurs when one freely engages in an activity that is personally endorsed and important. Conversely, OP occurs when the individual feels an uncontrollable urge to engage in the passionate activity.
HP has been associated with positive psychological adjustment, positive affect and subjective well-being, while OP has been associated with higher levels of anxiety and typically unrelated to subjective well-being.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between passion for yoga an activity known to lead to relaxation state, control, and wellness and anxiety and subjective well-being.
Participants completed the Passion Scale and various wellbeing scales. As hypothesized, HP predicted greater positive affect, life satisfaction, and hedonic and eudemonic well-being.
Moreover, HP was negatively associated with state anxiety during yoga classes and physical symptoms.
OP was negatively associated with physical symptoms but unrelated to state anxiety. It does appear that obsessively-passionate yogis do not benefit as much from yoga as harmoniously-passionate yogis do.
People do not necessarily follow their beliefs to the same extent, however. It is proposed that the degree to which a person thinks or acts according to his or her beliefs can be partially explained by a construct we refer to as Commitment to Beliefs CTB.
The CTB scale asks respondents to indicate the extent to which they consider their beliefs to be important to their identity, indisputably correct, important guides to their behavior, and important to follow irrespective of the consequences.
Results from one study suggest that the scale has high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, as well as strong levels of convergent and discriminant validity.
Two studies also demonstrate predictive validity: people who scored higher on the CTB scale were more likely to report that they had engaged in activities in the past month and year that followed directly from their beliefs, and show interest in discussing belief-relevant current events with others.
These findings suggest that there are individual differences in the extent to which people follow their beliefs.
This research may be instrumental in predicting what people do and the extremes to which people may go in order to act on their belief systems.
To give a full account of abuses, both perpetrator and victim are called upon to give their respective stories.
However, in conflict, it is often the government that commits violence. This study was designed to investigate perceptions of responsibility where government-led violence was committed by an individual.
The study investigated whether the context of justice, retributive or restorative, make a difference to perceptions of responsibility at truth commission hearings.
The participants in the retributive justice condition were more likely to feel the individual was responsible for the crime whereas those in the restorative justice condition perceived the government to be more responsible for the crime.
As well, those in the retributive condition were more likely to agree that the individual should go to jail than those in the restorative justice.
Furthermore, all participants were asked how long the jail term should be for the individual who committed a crime on behalf of the government.
Participants in the retributive condition were more likely to want the offender to go to jail for a longer period of time than those in the restorative condition.
Furthermore, the balance in the satisfaction of these three needs has recently been found to be important Sheldon and Niemiec, Over fourteen hundred high school students who worked over 10 hours per week completed questionnaires assessing number of hours worked, grade-point average, need satisfaction experienced at work and at school, and school drop out intentions.
The results show that while the satisfaction of needs at work was not predictive of drop out intentions, the balance of need satisfaction between the school and work context did play a significant role in predicting drop out intentions independently of the effects of school need satisfaction and grade point average.
This points to the importance of balance in need satisfaction between contexts independent of the level of need satisfaction in each context.
Consistent with this perspective, recent reviews suggest that self-affirmations prevent a number of maladaptive coping responses that occur in threatening situations.
To date, however, it remains unclear as to how self-affirmations produce these beneficial effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility that self-affirmations assist in coping because they reduce the negative feelings caused by the perception of threat.
As a result, affirmations provide affective feedback that a threatening situation is safe. To test this hypothesis, participants in the present study completed 1 of 2 different negative mood inductions sad or anxious prior to completing a self-affirmation task.
Half the participants reported their current mood before completing the affirmation task, while the remaining participants reported their mood after self-affirming.
Consistent with a moodrepair view, participants who completed the mood measure after the affirmation task reported significantly lower levels of negative affect compared to participants who reported their mood prior to the affirmation task.
Implications of these results for theories relating the self to emotions are discussed. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined.
This study investigated antecedents and consequences of informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Using a longitudinal design, undergraduate students were assessed on measures of self-compassion, identity style, perceived identity-competence and self-concept clarity.
Informational identity style was found to positively predict perceived identity-competence, while the normative identity style was found to positively predicted self-concept clarity.
Interestingly, the diffuse-avoidant identity style negatively predicted both self-concept clarity and perceived identity-competence.
Only the informational style was associated with selfcompassion as an antecedent. These results suggest that each identity processing style is uniquely related to self-concept clarity and perceived identity-competence as consequences, and that the informational style is uniquely related to self-compassion as an antecedent.
Disposition toward DC thus was estimated according to patterns of choice in systematized vignettes of physical-danger and ego threat, structured to reflect the above pair of DC dimensions.
Individual differences in EBA-model parameters, expressing corresponding differences in preference for decisional control, were mapped onto selected psychometric measures.
The results replicate and extend previous findings of the variability to predilection of DC, and lend construct validity to its EBA parameters, by embedding them in a broader psychometric context.
These associations were also explored in terms of biological sex differences and attachment styles. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of participants females, 61 males currently in romantic relationships.
A MANOVA revealed that those in ambivalent relationships displayed significantly poorer outcomes on all three aspects of well-being than those in supportive relationships.
There were no sex differences in the occurrence of ambivalence, and neither sex exhibited significantly worse well-being outcomes than the other based on the presence of ambivalence in a current dating relationship.
Insecure attachment styles accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the relationship between ambivalence and well-being; however, the presence of ambivalence still uniquely predicted relational well-being, over and above attachment styles.
Thomas University Two correlational studies examined the applicability of the dependence regulation model to the romantic relationships of agreeable people.
Previous research has shown that the more trusting a person is, the more they will value their partner and relationship as the trusting person will allow him or herself to become more emotionally dependent on his or her partner.
We then used structural equation modeling to investigate whether trust, in fact, mediated the relationship between agreeableness and the relationship quality variables.
Results indicated that trust consistently mediated the association between agreeableness and the different relationship quality variables.
Importantly, alternate competing models were tested but did not fit the data well. Thus, overall these studies provide evidence that the dependence regulation model may be useful for explaining why high agreeable people have better romantic relationships than low agreeable people.
However, the processes involved in these relationships have been mostly overlooked. The present study aimed at identifying the emotional and motivational processes involved in the relationships between self-defining memories and personality traits, psychological adjustment, and subjective wellbeing.
A total of participants described a self-defining memory and other memories related to it. For each reported memory, participants were assessed for their emotional experience at the time of the event, their self-determined motivation, and the level of need satisfaction provided by the event.
Participants were also assessed for some personality traits, psychological adjustment, and hedonic and eudemonic well-being.
Results showed that all three components emotions, self-determination, and needs contained in the self-defining memory and in the related memories were positively associated with openness and psychological resilience and negatively associated with neuroticism and behavioral inhibition.
In addition, all three variables were also positively associated with psychological adjustment and hedonic and eudemonic well-being.
Regression analyses suggested that the main predictor of all the variables assessed was psychological need satisfaction. Implications will be discussed.
On the pretext of a two-study session, participants volunteered for a study examining the effect of hunger on performance of a series of competitive skill-related tasks and for a consumer taste test.
Some participants were led to believe that their competitor a confederate performed much better than they high threat , while others performed the tasks under non-competitive conditions low threat.
It is argued that, because it is so difficult to achieve, a thin body is a status symbol for women and striving for it is a form of achievement behavior.
This may be due to the common assumption that such resolutions are often ineffective. Anecdotal information, however, suggests that some individuals e.
The present study examined the extent to which a brief measure of selfreported ability to adhere to personal resolutions was associated with various indices of self-regulation and personality in college students.
Personal resolution adherence was found to be strongly associated with several variables, including self-control, procrastination, conscientiousness, extraversion, behavioral activation a measure of sensitivity to reward as opposed to punishment , and flourishing a measure of emotional and psychological well-being.
In keeping with the AinslieRachlin model of self-control, personal resolutions can be conceptualized as a type of commitment response which effectively enables some individuals to delay gratification and obtain highly valued outcomes.
It was hypothesized that vocational interests and conceptually similar academic majors would be associated with similar combinations of personality and ability variables.
Results showed that abilities and personality dimensions contributed independently to the prediction of vocational interests and of academic major choices.
The relative contributions of verbal and mathematical ability, and of the six personality factors, differed across the vocational interest scales and academic major choices in ways that were generally consistent with predictions.
However, there may be differences between these forms of the media that are interesting theoretically because television programs are used for different purposes than commercials and magazines and practically because television programs are more ubiquitous than commercials and magazines.
The present study reports on the effects of experimental exposure to television programs depicting thin and highly-attractive characters on feelings of appearance-satisfaction in undergraduate women.
This result is interpreted in line with social comparison theory. In addition, a brief intervention, designed to remove the basis for social comparison with television images, was shown to be effective in mitigating this effect.
Previous research on unconscious thought processes suggests that people make better decisions when thinking unconsciously about complex matters than when thinking consciously or deciding immediately about those same matters Dijksterhuis, , Combining these findings, we hypothesized that paradoxically, motivationally congruent distortion will be more pronounced when people think unconsciously before making a complex judgment than when they think consciously or decide immediately.
Results are discussed in terms of previous research findings and their implications for day-to-day, as well as, political decision-making.
The former involves belief in little government interference in economic markets, whereas the latter implies a need for a strong government to maintain order.
One hundred and thirty three university students completed measures of free-market ideology, right-wing authoritarianism Altemeyer, , and a measure that was devised based on the ideas of the philosopher Hobbes, arguing for the need for a strong government.
This suggests that right-wing attitudes embodied in authoritarianism include complicated attitudes regarding the role of government, wanting it minimal in the economic realm, but optimal in terms of social control.
We hypothesized that participants would report a need for enemies and having previously had at least one enemy. It was also hypothesized that participants would report that enemies are valuable and serve a purpose.
Participants were undergraduate students from a mid-sized Canadian university. Through open-ended and checklist items, participants described enemyship as a relationship characterized by hate.
Furthermore, Those with higher self-esteem, as well as those with a high social dominance orientation reported a greater need for enemies.
Both factors are moderated by thin-ideal internalization. Viewing thinideal females was hypothesized to negatively impact body image as measured by the MBSRQ , and viewing normal-sized women and reading health information was hypothesized to improve body image.
Thin images were predicted to affect thin-ideal internalized women to a larger degree. Two hundred and ten women with a mean age of Because the study explicitly controlled for thinness, results broadly suggest that thin-ideal representation in the media alone may not be responsible for body image discontent, but instead a number of factors represented in these images e.
Although physical health is linked in the literature to subjective well-being SWB , the direction of this effect is not evident.
We report longitudinal data from a sample of first year university students, tested during orientation week, at the end of their first term and again two years later.
Shortterm and longer-term cross-lagged partial correlational analyses show the predominant direction of influence is from health to SWB.
Studies from our lab and elsewhere reveal that nonsecure adult attachment orientation is linked to poor health. In further analyses with this sample, replicated with samples of graduating students, individuals with chronic illnesses, and addicted clients at initial intake into a treatment centre, we test a model of attachment on SWB, after first entering a composite measure of self-reported health.
In all four samples, attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance predicted SWB, and health did not mediate these associations.
Therefore, it appears that a sense of SWB is determined by both physical and social functioning. Results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and extant models of subjective well-being.
However, there is no empirical support for this claim. The hypothesis that disadvantaged minority groups attempt to improve their condition by pursuing normative action and it is when repeated attempts at working within the system fail that violence is undertaken.
This hypothesis was tested by examining the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a militant, minority group in Sri Lanka. Six Tamil immigrants from Sri Lanka agreed to an in depth narrative interview and also completed a questionnaire assessing their perceptions of what led to the violence in Sri Lanka.
The data from the questionnaires was analyzed by means of t-tests. Results confirmed the hypotheses in showing that it was when repeated attempts at working within the system failed that violence was undertaken.
Decisional control is a means of coping with stress through the exercise of choice among courses of action to reduce stress. In past research, we used a game-theoretic like approach to investigate the fundamental quantifications generated by the model and their interrelations.
The quantified constructs at play in stress negotiation include: cognitive load, unpredictability of threat, threat reducibility, and residual expected threat.
Residual expected threat in particular is theorized to relate closely to levels of stress as measured in the present research by psychophysiological and reaction time data.
In the present study, the statistical properties of the simulation studies are applied to data collected from 71 participants presented with decisional control scenarios by computer.
Predictions include a strong negative correlation between threat reducibility and stress, a moderate correlation between cognitive load and threat reducibility, and a particularly heavy impact of uncertainty in decisional scenarios in the direction of increased stress.
Validation of the normative model has important implications for psychometric assessment and prediction of stress, and for advantageous choice structure for minimizing stress in decision-making science.
Fuschia Sirois, University of Windsor Previous research suggests that chronic procrastinators practice fewer wellness behaviours and that they have difficulty initiating and following through with health-related tasks.
Although low health self-efficacy has been suggested as a possible explanation, lack of perceived resources may also account for this relation.
However, if the resources perceived as necessary to complete a task are unrealistic, then such strategies may simply reflect self-handicapping.
They were also asked what three things they would wish for to help with their health behaviour change.
Three groups were formed based on the procrastination scores. A thematic content analysis of the qualitative responses was conducted using NVivo 2.
Similar to previous research, procrastination was associated with fewer wellness behaviors, and greater stress. A comparison of the wishes across the three procrastination groups revealed distinct differences in the reasonableness of the wishes.
Implications for motivating people to change health behaviours are discussed. Participants were undergraduate students women, 43 men, 2 missing , who received course credit for their participation.
Implications for future research will be discussed. The results of the study suggest that self-oriented perfectionism is significantly related to disordered eating, internalization of the thin-ideal, and socially prescribed perfectionism.
Socially prescribed perfectionism, however, was unrelated to either disordered eating or to internalization.
As hypothesized, internalization of the thin-ideal was a strong predictor of disordered eating among participants, and accounted for more variance than either dimension of perfectionism.
This scale was originally developed for use in industrial-organizational research on justice, but its use could be extended to other areas.
Participants completed the JOS in the context of a larger study. A confirmatory factor analysis of the JOS generally supported its hypothesized two-factor structure and internal consistency.
I will highlight the ways in which this measure may be improved and discuss how the JOS differs from other measures that may predict sympathy or antipathy toward disadvantaged groups or outgroups.
However, when the other affects the in-group negatively, the in-group members can use MOATING to move the other away from the in-group and toward the out-group.
In the current research, the moderating role of right-wing authoritarianism i. These findings contribute to our understanding of the interplay between personality and social factors associated with social identity and inter-group processes.
We believe that optimally functioning individuals, who are committed to their cause, should be passionate for their activity.
HP occurs when individuals freely engage in an activity they find important and enjoyable, whereas OP arises when ones experience an incontrollable urge to partake in the activity.
The present study tested this model. Intrinsic values, however, were only positively related to HP, which was conducive to life satisfaction but not OP.
These findings provide additional support for the passion model and pave the way for new research directions. A factor analysis by Conway et al.
The current study evaluated the proposed 1-factor solution using a confirmatory factor analysis CFA. The scale was reduced to 8 items that were most strongly conceptually linked to these 2 factors.
The 2-factor solution was tested using a CFA approach. The results are discussed in terms of the link between rumination and depression.
Few studies have empirically assessed the construct validity of the alexithymia factors. Past results have revealed that the DIF factor is positively associated with the frequency of negative emotion word use Tull et al.
However, measuring the frequency of word use does not provide information about the accuracy of emotional identification Tull et al.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between DIF and accuracy when identifying specific negative emotions.
It was hypothesized that DIF would be unrelated to the target emotion and correlate positively with the other non-target emotions.
The mood inductions were successful, as participants experienced significantly greater levels of the target emotion in each condition.
DIF was unrelated to the target emotion in each condition; and instead, was positively related to the non-target emotions in the disgust and sad conditions.
Findings present partial support the construct validity of alexithymia, as individuals scoring high on DIF have difficulty accurately identifying specific negative emotions.
In the trait domain, the choice of such comparison measures is all too often haphazard. Well-structured trait taxonomies like the Abridged Big Five Circumplex Model AB5C provide a systematic method for specifying appropriate comparison measures for testing the incremental validity of a new trait measure.
The current experiment was conducted to show that accuracy and bias in appraisals, when manipulated independently, both uniquely contribute to, and synergistically predict, positive relationship perceptions.
Results revealed that more accurate and more positively biased feedback independently made people feel more positive about their partners and relationships.
As expected, participants receiving both highly accurate and positively biased feedback felt the most positively about their partners and relationships.
Results support the notion that accuracy and bias can be independently manipulated and contribute uniquely, and synergistically, to partner and relationship perceptions.
However, fans of the show have a very strong affinity to Jack Bauer, and do not perceive his actions as wrong or evil.
A study was conducted to investigate what the influence of prior attitudes would be toward a protagonist on their moral judgements of his actions.
Participants who held favourable attitudes toward Jack Bauer rated his actions as less bad and less evil, even in scenarios where he tortured to death an innocent person.
The results are discussed with reference to the literature on the role of emotion and self-serving biases on moral judgements.
Two hundred and seventy eight adult twins completed questionnaire measures of the Dark Triad and the Big 5.
Consistent with some previous studies, we found significant correlations among some of the Dark Triad variables and between each of the Dark Triad variables and some of the Big 5.
To the extent that these variables were correlated at the phenotypic level, these correlations were largely attributable to correlated genetic factors.
Consistent with some previous studies, we found significant correlations between several TEIque facets and factors and some of the Big 5 factors.
To the extent that these variables were correlated at the phenotypic level, these correlations were entirely attributable to correlated genetic and nonshared environmental factors.
Results generally supported the hypotheses, suggesting that psychopathy has a conceptually meaningful array of temperamental underpinnings and behavioral correlates even in a sub-clinical population.
The current study examined whether personality traits associated with masculine and feminine gender role socialization agency, communion, unmitigated agency, unmitigated communion were related to three dimensions of multiple role strain role distress, role enhancement, and role support.
Participants were 98 employed women living with a chronic illness. Results revealed that women high on unmitigated communion were the most vulnerable to multiple role strain, reporting greater levels of role distress and lower levels of both role enhancement and role support.
Findings are consistent with a body of literature that indicates that unmitigated communion is associated with greater distress due to overinvolvement with others and self-neglect.
Future research should examine the associations between gender-related traits and multiple role strain among healthy women not living with chronic illness.
Previous research links procrastination to the formation and strength of intentions, a relationship mediated by self-efficacy Sirois, Like self-efficacy, hope is described as the mental determination and perceived ability to reach a goal Snyder, Thus, hope may relate to procrastination and intentions in a similar manner.
Research suggests that hope mitigates the tendency towards procrastinating on intentions to perform academic tasks, which are time-sensitive and have clear deadlines.
Currently, research has not examined hope and procrastination regarding tasks that are not time-sensitive, such as performing health behaviours.
This study investigated the role of hope in the relationship between procrastination and intentions to perform health behaviours. Mediation analyses revealed that hope did not mediate the procrastination-intention relationship.
Distinctions between self-efficacy and hope are discussed. Participants were 50 Canadian moral heroes national award recipients for either exceptional bravery or care , as well as an individually-matched comparison group.
They responded to a set of personality inventories and an extensive life-review interview which provided a broadband assessment of personality.
These contrasting profiles of moral personality imply that exemplary moral functioning can be embodied in multifarious forms that may reflect different developmental processes and pathways.
The affect regulation hypothesis provides a possible explanation for this link. While most of the research has focused on negative emotion and attachment anxiety, this study also investigates whether positive emotion helps to explain the link between attachment avoidance and mental health.
We report results from a sample of individuals reporting a chronic illness, and a sample of university students, and include measures of mental health, depression, and loneliness.
Hierarchical multiple regression analyses show that in these samples, higher avoidance and anxiety predicted worse mental health, higher levels of depression and loneliness.
In the chronic illness sample, positive and negative emotions mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and avoidance and mental health, but not depression or loneliness.
In the student sample, positive and negative emotions mediated the link between only low levels of avoidance and mental health, depression and loneliness.
This research highlights the role of positive emotions in addition to negative emotions in the predictive link between attachment and mental health, especially in the case of those with high levels of avoidance.
Given our current sociopolitical climate, appraisal-coping processes evoked by a religious identity threat and their implications on emotional and behavioural reactions were examined.
Regression analyses indicated that religious identity strength was associated with greater sadness, anger, fear, and contempt, yet likewise with greater determination.
High-identifiers were also more likely to endorse various actions to confront the threat, and were less likely to accept the situation.
Finally, multiple-mediation analyses revealed that threat appraisals mediated the relations between religious identification and negative affect, whereas the relations between identification and action-endorsements were mediated by appraisals of the situation as threatening or challenging, and by problem-focused coping efforts.
Concurrently, these individuals may cope with such circumstances by way of seeking solutions in an effort to diminish the consequences of the threat.
Where did this interest come from? Attention in the popular press and business magazines far outweighs that in academic journals.
Indeed, the number of research articles in peer reviewed academic journals is relatively small, albeit growing. This creates the impression of practice leading science.
I will provide a brief discussion of the engagement concept in current use and why it has achieved such popularity. I will then show how the concept can be grounded in well-established theory.
Finally, I will argue that by recognizing and building on these theoretical roots, science can move from follower to leader in the development and evaluation of engagement practices, and perhaps prevent their demise as simply another management fad.
Michael Vallis, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre Psychologists possess skills that have been, and are increasingly being recognized as, critically important to stem the tide of life limiting chronic illnesses associated with unhealthy lifestyles.
Objectives of this workshop include: 1. To become familiar with an assessment and intervention model based on the constructs of motivational enhancement, behaviour modification and emotion management.
There have been numerous approaches to the prevention of disordered eating with a vast range of success.
The disease-oriented paradigm may be responsible for slowing the progress of weight-related prevention efforts because of undue attention on individual pathology.
It is becoming increasingly clear that sociocultural factors, such as the media promotion of ultra thin women, contribute to body dissatisfaction.
Indeed, weight pre-occupation may be a normal response to the demands of a society that values thinness as the standard of beauty.
Prevention research from an ecological perspective recognizes the continuum of attitudes and behaviours that lead to disordered eating and targets both protective and risk factors.
This workshop focuses on practical strategies, research designs, and a synthesis of outcomes from programs that take an ecological perspective and target not only individual change but also the larger environmental influences.
This review will survey the scales available for different purposes research, clinical use, etc. In particular, the problem of norm groups that either are not fully specified or limited to specific populations will be explored, as will the division within the field as to whether scales ought to be suitable for multiple faith groups or faith-groupspecific.
A list of scales not included in Hill and Hood , most of which have been published since that volume, will be distributed.
The purpose of this activity is to enhance the sense of connection among the students and to create a learning community. The Finding Your Soul-Mate activity was created to strengthen classroom interpersonal relationships.
The KSS bonding theory states that in order to create a bonding relationship between two individuals, three conditions must be met: knowledge collecting information about each other , sharedness having something in common , and significance both individuals considering that shared knowledge as important.
The theoretical background, strategies, and procedures of this activity will be introduced and related materials will be provided for this workshop.
This symposium features three presentations that speak directly to this issue. The first presentation will discuss the experience of being a site of the International Resilience Project which studies the individual, familial and community factors that promote resilience within communities around the world, while acknowledging the challenges and resources that are unique to each community.
The effectiveness of such a program in promoting resilience will be discussed. Together, these presentations advance our understanding of context in studying resilience.
Moreover, the results have important implications for intervention programs that promote resilience. The International Resilience Project spans 11 countries over 6 continents.
With cooperation and direction from an advisory board consisting of members that work with youth in the community, the researchers designed and carried out the first study unique to this site using the research protocols from the IRP including the use of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure CYRM , 10 site specific questions and interviews with participants which included youth and elders in the community.
Three socially contrasting neighbourhoods with heterogeneous child health outcomes were selected for study.
Within each neighbourhood, adults and to year-old youth were recruited for focus group interviews; in addition, key informants from the educational sector were included in the study.
The results provide empirical support to a conceptual model of community resilience that integrates structural and process related dualisms as well as risk and protective factors for child health.
While presenting an integrated model of community resilience, the author acknowledges the need for studies that further illuminate specific contributions of community and individual factors and their mechanisms in producing child and youth health outcomes.
Research has found that individual factors that have protective value and foster resilience include a positive selfregard, problem-solving skills and powerful connections to something beyond oneself, whether it be a higher power, a connection to a cause or to nature.
This study investigates resilience within a wilderness therapy WT program. The goal of WT is to promote skills conducive to healthy lifestyle choices through overcoming physical and psychological challenges Russell, The purpose of this research is to assess whether a WT program fosters protective factors.
Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this assessment. Participants were interviewed in the first and last weeks of their 32 day program.
Findings and results will be discussed regarding the effectiveness of CanAdventure Education to foster factors important in building resilience in its participants.
The assessment of the effects of centrally-active drugs on cognition has potential to help identify treatment responders, treatment effects, and how treatments affect brain functioning and has become a hot topic in drug development.
The reasons for the interest are: a there are many novel compounds in development aimed at improving cognition e.
This symposium will provide a current perspective on the role of the neuropsychologist in advancing the development and application of modern neurocognitive measures in human drug trials.
State of the art presentations will be given on the emerging area of neurocognitive testing in early stages of drug development, the use of computerized test platforms, the potential of electrophysiological techniques to map the effects of centrally active compounds in clinical populations, and critical issues in cognitive assessment in dementia trials.
Including the assessment of neurocognitive function early in drug development in healthy normal volunteers i. However, the uniqueness of the phase I environment poses challenges for the application of traditional neuropsychological tests.
Traditional instruments are often inappropriate or require considerable adaptation for use in phase I trials, which raises questions about the impact on test psychometrics and test standardization in the field.
This presentation will provide a a critical perspective on the challenges of neurocognitive assessment in this unique environment and b a practical overview of the contributions of the neuropsychologist to the development and application of neurocognitive measures and the appropriate interpretation of results from phase I studies.
Case examples from early stage clinical trials will be presented. There are also special considerations depending on the study such as relevance to the type of compound, stage of development, indication, trial design, and target population.
This presentation will focus on the role of neuropsychologist in providing independent, expert input on the development and application of computerized neuropsychological measures in clinical trials and the context in which they may be appropriately used and interpreted.
The staggering number of traditional paper-pencil and computerized tests available can be overwhelming for those who lack expertise and the role of neuropsychologists in this process is invaluable.
Traditional paper-andpencil measures will be compared to a sample of commercially available computerized tests which are currently used in drug development in terms of the uniqueness and the needs of the study.
We will present an overview of electroencepholography EEG and event-related brain potential ERP techniques and how they can be used to assess brain function, psychological states, and cognitive processes.
We will also review their use in neuropsychiatric and neurological clinical populations, including depression, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and dementia.
We will discuss the current state of knowledge as to whether these techniques demonstrate adequate psychometric properties e.
Cognitive impairment is a central feature of the dementias, most often manifested as memory impairment, although other cognitive domains are also affected.
As such, the assessment of therapeutic efficacy of drug treatments for the dementias includes the symptomatic improvement, slowing, or arrest of symptom progression as manifest in cognition.
However, the most widely used instrument in clinical trials in the dementias does not adequately address the scope of domains of function affected, such as attention, working memory, language, or executive function.
The following presentation will illustrate the contributions of the neuropsychologist in ensuring the measures chosen in Phase III dementia trials assess key cognitive parameters, are reliable, sensitive according to the severity of disease, capable of detecting changes in cognition, ecologically valid and sample the cognitive domains relevant to the expression of the disease.
Examples of past and on-going trials will be given. The CPA Committee on Ethics generates formal opinions, guidelines, and resources to support Canadian psychologists in meeting these challenges.
This symposium provides an update on several current issues under consideration, such as, supervision, end-of-life, the use of electronic media.
Language and meaning emerge in the context of culture. Measures are discussed to ensure that meaning and intent are not distorted in translation, and to ensure that a secular English language format is culturally sensitive in the initial development of a universal declaration of ethical principles for psychologists.
This presentation will provide an update on several recent activities of the Committee on Ethics related to these functions, including development of Ethical Guidelines for Supervision in Psychology: Teaching, Research, Practice, and Administration, and development of Code Interpretations regarding psychologists ethical responsibilities when: a working with persons making end-of-life decisions; 2 delivering services through electronic media; 3 using titles or academic designations.
An update also will be provided regarding the development of an ethics section for the CPA Website. Participants will be invited to provide feedback regarding the Committees recent activities and ideas for the future.
Some fledging work has begun in rural psychology in the United States of america, and Australia has developed research and training infrastructure in this area, particularly focused on ethics.
As the OECD country with the largest geographical dispersement of people, Canada may benefit from considering lessons we can learn from our international colleagues.
There is empirical evidence of commonalities in basic human values across cultures, but there is evidence as well of barriers to mutual understanding and differences in how people believe life should be lived.
One of the major lessons to be learned in working cross culturally on what is initially an English language secular Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists is that the meaning of language is not constant and wide consultation is essential to be sensitive to the differences.
Examples of issues related to the meaning of language will be given. They will include warnings about words that are prescriptive or can be perceived as western control colonization, dominance, oppression; words that carry negative political baggage; and words that carry a limited sense of competence.
The need to recognize indigenous psychology as well as the indigenization of psychology will be emphasized.
Finally, how the issues of the meaning of language have been addressed by the International Ad Hoc Joint Committee for the development of a universal declaration of ethical principles for psychologists will be described.
Further, studies of resilience have provided insight into the factors that best promote adaptive capacities in adolescence; however, little is known about those capacities that support resiliency in youth with ASD.
In addition to examination of the three aforementioned models and their impact on socio-emotional outcomes, the project was interested in severity of autism symptomatology, and the factors that best promote resiliency in youth with ASD.
Findings suggest that models of theory of mind, executive functions and emotional intelligence, as well as symptom severity, are predictive of resiliency.
Implications for understanding resiliency and successful transitions into adulthood in youth with ASD are explored.
This study explored emotional intelligence EI; trait and ability models and theory of mind ToM as predictors for important social e. Findings indicate that EI and ToM predict adaptive and maladaptive outcomes in this particular group.
The implications for intervention and future research are highlighted. The effects of AD, a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by atypicalities in social and emotional functioning, are significant during adolescence when social and emotional abilities become increasingly important.
The role of trait-based emotional intelligence, conceptualized by Bar-On , has recently been linked with resilience e.
This study examined the relationship between trait-based emotional intelligence and resilience in youth with AD.
Results suggest that while youth with AD rate themselves differently than normative samples on tests of traitbased emotional intelligence, these individuals rate themselves as average on many measures of resilience.
The relationship between trait-based emotional intelligence and resilience will be discussed. While most investigators support the view that the prefrontal cortex PFC plays a primary role in EFs, there are differing views regarding which specific regions of the PFC and related functions are most highly associated with the behavioural characteristics of individuals with ASD.
Consequently, this research involves an examination of the performance of youth with ASD on various standardized instruments and experimental indices of EFs for coherence with neurophysiological models of prefrontal function.
Specifically, a typology of EFs characterized by predominantly cognitive abilities versus processes related to affect regulation was explored.
Although EF deficits in youth with ASD were expected to correlate more strongly with primarily affective EFs associated with orbitofrontal cortex function than primarily cognitive EFs associated with dorsolateral cortex function , preliminary findings indicate poor performance solely on primarily cognitive measures.
An evaluation of the utility of neuropsychological models of executive and associated prefrontal function to guide us towards a more specific behavioral EF profile for youth with ASD is explored.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ToM and resiliency in youth with ASD. Findings are discussed in light of implications for better understanding ToM and resiliency in youth with AD.
As a result of these difficulties, youth with ASD often experience maladaptive social, vocational, and academic outcomes Tantam, Interestingly, many youth who are faced with adverse circumstances display positive adaptation or resilience and appear to be relatively unaffected by adversities e.
We expected the severity of autism symptomatology to have explanatory power in understanding the spectrum of resilient behaviors displayed by youth with ASD.
Specifically, individuals with severe symptomatology were expected to display less resilient behavior than those with mild symptomatology.
Further, we explored the relationships between adaptability, communication and social skills, stereotyped behaviors and affect regulation, and resilient attributes such as sense of mastery, sense of relatedness, emotional reactivity and satisfaction with life.
Significant relationships were found between resilience and a number of these factors. The role of severity of autistic symptomatology and related factors such as adaptability, communication, social skills, and affect regulation in predicting resilient outcomes in youth with ASD will be examined.
The presentations in this symposium will highlight some of the unique aspects of the work being done by our group.
In addition to describing the development and evolution of a new role in rehabilitation psychology, the role of psychology in a specialty clinic for children with severe feeding disorders, and in multidisciplinary enuresis and encopresis clinics will be discussed.
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