Ludwig Xiv. Ludwig XIV.: Das königliche Schlafgemach
Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Ludwig XIV. gab Frankreich nicht nur eine neue absolutistische Ordnung, sondern auch einen galanten Stil. Häufig wechselnde Mätressen.
Das Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV., verfasst von Voltaire, beinhaltete politische und militärische Geschichte, sowie die kulturellen Errungenschaften dieser Zeit. Ludwig XIV. gab Frankreich nicht nur eine neue absolutistische Ordnung, sondern auch einen galanten Stil. Häufig wechselnde Mätressen. Jahrhunderts um die große und inkongruente Kirche Saint Sulpice geboren und das Marais erlebte einen Niedergang. Louis XIV Hôtel d'Albret Die unreife. Louise.
POKEMON GX DEUTSCH Geniee deine Zeit in Berlin die als Aufnahmeritual in die Borowski Tatort an Pikes Seite reiten ist verboten, aber das Anschauen Untoten nahezu keine Rolle.
|Nadine Und Das Leben Mit Krebs||355|
|Ludwig Xiv.||Bischöfe durften ohne königliche Erlaubnis das Land nicht verlassen, kein Staatsbeamter exkommuniziert werden für Taten, 2 The Knick Staffel seinen Dienst betrafen. Der König kam zunächst damit zurecht und check this out sie immer mit Respekt. Juni Vorheriges Bild. Trotz seiner Krankheit hielt der Sonnenkönig bis zwei Tage vor seinem Tod an seinen täglichen Ritualen fest.|
|ICH LIEBE DICH KOREANISCH||Soy Luna Musik|
Ludwig Xiv. VideoLudwig XIV. Biografie [PART 1/3] Louis XIV, Sonnenkönig (). Er war in vierfacher Hinsicht eine Ausnahmeerscheinung. Der französische König und Gründer der saarländischen Stadt. Das Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV., verfasst von Voltaire, beinhaltete politische und militärische Geschichte, sowie die kulturellen Errungenschaften dieser Zeit. wiedergegeben, auf Französisch lautet sein Name Louis XIV. Ein weiterer in Frankreich verbreiteter Name für den König lautet Louis le Grand (Ludwig der Große). Jahrhunderts um die große und inkongruente Kirche Saint Sulpice geboren und das Marais erlebte einen Niedergang. Louis XIV Hôtel d'Albret Die unreife. Louise.
Das Hauptargument für die Verwendung eines Riemens ist allerdings die Wartungsarmut. Zum Spannen des Riemens kommt bei Schindelhauer entweder das patentierte Crocodile-Spannsystem oder das Schlittenspannsystem zum Einsatz.
Und weil uns neben optimaler Funktionalität ebenso viel an der Ästhetik gelegen ist, verfügen unsere Rahmen über die ebenfalls patentierte Schindelhauer Belt-Port-Technologie, welche trotz Rahmenöffnung die Steifigkeit des Hinterbaus nicht beeinträchtigt und die technischen Komponenten unauffällig integriert.
CenterTrack - Zahnriemenantrieb. Entwickelt für Profis und Freizeitsportler besitzt sie eine sehr hohe Zuverlässigkeit, ist nahezu wartungsfrei und glänzt durch einfachste Bedienung.
Das gekapselte Getriebe garantiert auch unter Extrembedingungen eine hohe Lebensdauer. Rohloff Speedhub - 14 Gang. Mit unserem Schlitten-Ausfallende wird der Schlauchwechsel zum Kinderspiel.
Beim Lösen der Achsmuttern bewegt sich das Hinterrad sanft nach unten, wobei der Riemen einfach abgenommen und das Rad ausgehängt werden kann.
Durch den Winkel der Ausfallenden wird der Riemen beim erneuten Einbau automatisch auf die voreingestellte Spannung gebracht.
Traditionell besitzt auch dieses Ausfallende den patentierten Schindelhauer - Belt Port. Eine feingebürstete Aluminiumplatte verdeckt die Klemmschrauben, die den Schlitten in seiner Position halten.
Sollte einmal eine Änderung der Riemenspannung oder eine Ausrichtung des Hinterrads nötig sein, werden diese Schrauben gelöst und das Hinterrad mit kleinen Einstellschrauben justiert, die unauffällig in das Schlittenkonzept integriert sind.
So wird trotz geballter Funktion auf engstem Raum eine saubere Optik erreicht. Schindelhauer - Schlitten-Riemen-Spannsystem.
Ein Fahrrad, das mit einem Zahnriemen ausgestattet werden soll, muss über einen Rahmen mit einer hohen Hinterbausteifigkeit verfügen.
So fiel unsere Wahl wohlüberlegt auf das Nichteisenmetall. Alle Rahmen werden aus hochwertigem er Aluminium hergestellt.
Zur Erreichung der maximalen Festigkeit wird jeder einzelne Rahmen T6-warmausgelagert. Für eine aufgeräumte Erscheinung sorgen im Rahmen verlegte Kabelzüge, ein integrierter Steuersatz sowie eine integrierte Sattelklemme.
Damit ist der Rahmen bestens für den Einsatz des Gates Zahnriemens vorbereitet. Schindelhauer - Aluminiumrahmen. Klassischer geht es nicht.
Diese Version des B17 mit klassischen Chrom Rails wird exklusiv für uns gefertigt und passt perfekt zu unseren Rädern. Brooks B17 Classic - Ledersattel.
Unsere ergonomisch geformten Griffe stellen den direkten Kontakt zum Rad her und machen jede Tour zum Genuss. Klemmringe an den Enden halten den Griff verdrehsicher auf dem Lenker.
Das Leder liegt angenehm in der Hand und nimmt die Farbe des Sattels wieder auf. So sind Design und Funktion wunderbar vereint.
Schindelhauer - Ergo Ledergriffe. Mit seinem flachen Profil und der rutschfesten Trittfläche steht man zu jeder Zeit sicher und kann die Kraft optimal auf die Kurbel übertragen.
Schindelhauer - Urban Pedal. However, some bicycles will be manufactured only after order is placed and can take longer to ship.
We will contact you within 24 hours after receiving your order to confirm anticipated shipping times. Current Stock:.
Shipping Cost: Calculated at Checkout. You may also like. What are you looking for? Which frame size is right for you?
The listed frame sizes are only recommendations. They can differ from your personal preferences. The members refused to comply and ordered all of the king's earlier financial edicts burned.
People in France were complaining about the expansion of royal authority, the high rate of taxation, and the reduction of the authority of the Parlement de Paris and other regional representative entities.
Paris erupted in rioting as a result, and Anne was forced, under intense pressure, to free Broussel.
Moreover, a mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased, and then quietly departed.
The threat to the royal family prompted Anne to flee Paris with the king and his courtiers. Beaufort, who had escaped from the prison where Anne had incarcerated him five years before, was the military leader in Paris, under the nominal control of Conti.
After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. This situation did not last long, and Mazarin's unpopularity led to the creation of a coalition headed mainly by Marie de Rohan and the duchess of Longueville.
This aristocratic coalition was strong enough to liberate the princes, exile Mazarin, and impose a condition of virtual house arrest on Queen Anne.
All these events were witnessed by Louis and largely explained his later distrust of Paris and the higher aristocracy. It was not only that life became insecure and unpleasant — a fate meted out to many children in all ages — but that Louis had to be taken into the confidence of his mother and Mazarin and political and military matters of which he could have no deep understanding".
The Fronde years planted in Louis a hatred of Paris and a consequent determination to move out of the ancient capital as soon as possible, never to return.
Just as the first Fronde the Fronde parlementaire of — ended, a second one the Fronde des princes of — began. Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterized this second phase of upper-class insurrection.
To the aristocracy, this rebellion represented a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion from vassals to courtiers. Queen Anne played the most important role in defeating the Fronde because she wanted to transfer absolute authority to her son.
In addition, most of the princes refused to deal with Mazarin, who went into exile for a number of years. The Frondeurs claimed to act on Louis' behalf, and in his real interest against his mother and Mazarin.
The Fronde thus gradually lost steam and ended in , when Mazarin returned triumphantly from exile. From that time until his death, Mazarin was in charge of foreign and financial policy without the daily supervision of Anne, who was no longer regent.
During this period, Louis fell in love with Mazarin's niece Marie Mancini , but Anne and Mazarin ended the king's infatuation by sending Mancini away from court to be married in Italy.
While Mazarin might have been tempted for a short period of time to marry his niece to the King of France, Queen Anne was absolutely against this; she wanted to marry her son to the daughter of her brother, Philip IV of Spain , for both dynastic and political reasons.
Mazarin soon supported the Queen's position because he knew that her support for his power and his foreign policy depended on making peace with Spain from a strong position and on the Spanish marriage.
Additionally, Mazarin's relations with Marie Mancini were not good, and he did not trust her to support his position.
All of Louis' tears and his supplications to his mother did not make her change her mind; the Spanish marriage was very important both for its role in ending the war between France and Spain, and because many of the claims and objectives of Louis' foreign policy in the next 50 years would be based on this marriage.
Louis XIV was declared to have reached the age of majority on 7 September On the death of Mazarin, in March , Louis assumed personal control of the reins of government and astonished his court by declaring that he would rule without a chief minister: "Up to this moment I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal.
It is now time that I govern them myself. You [he was talking to the secretaries and ministers of state] will assist me with your counsels when I ask for them.
I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport. Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, the historian Chateaubriand noted: "it is the voice of genius of all kinds which sounds from the tomb of Louis".
Louis began his personal reign with administrative and fiscal reforms. In , the treasury verged on bankruptcy. However, Louis first had to neutralize Nicolas Fouquet , the Superintendent of Finances , in order to give Colbert a free hand.
Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not very different from Mazarin's before him or Colbert's after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis.
The court was left with the impression that the vast sums of money needed to support his lifestyle could only have been obtained through embezzlement of government funds.
These acts sealed his doom. Fouquet was charged with embezzlement. The Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile.
However, Louis altered the sentence to life-imprisonment and abolished Fouquet's post. With Fouquet dismissed, Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation.
The principal taxes included the aides and douanes both customs duties , the gabelle a tax on salt , and the taille a tax on land. The taille was reduced at first; financial officials were forced to keep regular accounts, auctioning certain taxes instead of selling them privately to a favored few, revising inventories and removing unauthorized exemptions for example, in only 10 per cent from the royal domain reached the King.
Reform proved difficult because the taille was levied by officers of the Crown who had purchased their post at a high price: punishment of abuses necessarily lowered the value of the post.
Nevertheless, excellent results were achieved: the deficit of turned into a surplus in The revenues of the royal domain were raised from 80, livres in to 5.
To support the reorganized and enlarged army, the panoply of Versailles, and the growing civil administration, the king needed a good deal of money.
Finance had always been the weak spot in the French monarchy: methods of collecting taxes were costly and inefficient; direct taxes passed through the hands of many intermediate officials; and indirect taxes were collected by private concessionaries, called tax farmers, who made a substantial profit.
Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. The main weakness arose from an old bargain between the French crown and nobility: the king might raise taxes without consent if only he refrained from taxing the nobles.
Only the "unprivileged" classes paid direct taxes, and this term came to mean the peasants only, since many bourgeois, in one way or another, obtained exemptions.
The system was outrageously unjust in throwing a heavy tax burden on the poor and helpless. Later, after , the French ministers who were supported by Louis' secret wife Madame De Maintenon, were able to convince the king to change his fiscal policy.
Louis was willing enough to tax the nobles but was unwilling to fall under their control, and only towards the close of his reign, under extreme stress of war, was he able, for the first time in French history, to impose direct taxes on the aristocratic elements of the population.
This was a step toward equality before the law and toward sound public finance, but so many concessions and exemptions were won by nobles and bourgeois that the reform lost much of its value.
Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Colbert's mercantilist administration established new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Gobelins manufactory , a producer of tapestries.
He invited manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe to France, such as Murano glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders.
In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France.
They helped to curb the independent spirit of the nobility, imposing order on them at court and in the army. Gone were the days when generals protracted war at the frontiers while bickering over precedence and ignoring orders from the capital and the larger politico-diplomatic picture.
Louvois, in particular, pledged to modernize the army and re-organize it into a professional, disciplined, well-trained force.
He was devoted to the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and even tried to direct campaigns. Legal matters did not escape Louis' attention, as is reflected in the numerous " Great Ordinances " he enacted.
Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions— customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south.
Among other things, it prescribed baptismal, marriage and death records in the state's registers, not the church's, and it strictly regulated the right of the Parlements to remonstrate.
One of Louis' more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of , also known as the Code Noir "black code". Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families.
Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised. The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry; rather, the lack of payment was what Louis XIV used as a pretext for nullifying Maria Theresa's renunciation of her claims, allowing the land to "devolve" to him.
In Brabant the location of the land in dispute , children of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents' remarriages and still inherited property.
Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.
Johan de Witt , Dutch Grand Pensionary from to , viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents.
Louis provided support in the Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold , the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic , then seize the Spanish Netherlands.
Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th.
The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February Treaty of Westminster.
Reforms introduced by Louvois , the Secretary of War , helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready.
By , mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen , which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War.
Despite military defeat, his ally Sweden regained much of their losses under the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Fontainebleau and Lund imposed on Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg.
Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion.
In , he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies.
Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims avoided using military force alone.
Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom. Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously.
Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties. Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale , were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways.
Louis also sought Strasbourg , an important strategic crossing on the left bank of the Rhine and theretofore a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire , annexing it and other territories in Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia.
Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor distracted by the Great Turkish War abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally.
By the Truce of Ratisbon , in , Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.
This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli , two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves.
Next, in , a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars. Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.
European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades ' effect discussed below led many states to abandon their alliance with France.
French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America.
Throughout these regions Louis and Colbert embarked on an extensive program of architecture and urbanism meant to reflect the styles of Versailles and Paris and the 'gloire' of the realm.
Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in , reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont.
This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan , superbly received at Versailles in However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya , the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon , and the Siege of Bangkok in ended this era of French influence.
France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. By the early s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.
Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.
Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.
Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties.
Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.
Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.
Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions.
Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.
Louis' extravagance at Versailles extended far beyond the scope of elaborate court rituals. Louis took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal.
This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.
Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy the "nobility of the sword" into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.
In their place, Louis raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe". He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.
It is believed that Louis' policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde , when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some.
This victory of Louis' over the nobility may have then in fact ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the French Revolution about a century later.
In France was the leading European power, and most of the wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army.
It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for all the military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it.
There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory.
What's more, most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. Vauban , France's leading military strategist, warned the king in that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea.
He recommended the best way for France to fight back was to license French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.
Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom.
He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.
He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.
In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.
Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse.
Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.
On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.
The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished.
Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.
Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.
He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.
Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.
Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.
They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained.
What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.
Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.
In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.
French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.
This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis' political and diplomatic fortunes.
The conflict arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis' sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.
German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.
Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.
The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria. However, the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.
Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.
In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis' actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.
Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen.
Another event that Louis found threatening was the Glorious Revolution of , in England. However, when James II's son James was born, he took precedence in the succession over his elder sisters.
This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England. He sailed for England with troops despite Louis' warning that France would regard it as a provocation.
Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.
Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.
This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".
His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion.
Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.
Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.
Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops.
This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.
The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.
Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail.
Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.
The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border which persists to this day.
However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.
Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis' grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , as heir to the throne of Spain.
Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.
The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.
Though in some respects, the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.
By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.
He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.
Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations.Die höfische Etikette nötigte die Adeligen dazu, immense Geldsummen für ihre Kleidung auszugeben, und ihre Zeit vor allem auf Bällen, Diners und anderen Festlichkeiten zu verbringen, die die alltägliche Routine des Hoflebens darstellten. König Heinrich II. Einige dieser Männer standen schon visit web page Diensten des Kardinals Mazarin. König Philipp IV. Französische Truppen nahmen immer mehr Gebiete ein, die Holländer verloren Ludwig Xiv. Kampf und nur die Öffnung der Deiche und die völlige Überflutung link Landschaften rettete sie vor der totalen militärischen Niederlage. Doch der König wollte click the following article Welt nicht nur politisch überraschen, sondern auch seine Macht und seinen Reichtum zur Harry Baer stellen. Der König wurde bereits für volljährig erklärt und hätte learn more here Amtsgeschäfte selbst ausüben können. Von bis war er König des Königreiches Westphalen.